If cities power economic growth, then technological improvements that allow for larger cities just may be important. Tom Vanderbilt offers some historical insight in Traffic:
The noted Italian physicist Cesare Marchetti has taken this idea one step further and pointed out that throughout history, well before the car, humans have sought to keep their commute at about one hour.
When walking was our only commuting option, an average walking speed of 5 kilometers per hour meant that the daily commute to and from the cave would allow one to cover an area of roughly 7 square miles (or 20 square kilometers). This, remarks Marchetti, is exactly the mean area of Greek villages to this day.Moreover, Marchetti notes, none of the ancient city walls, from Rome to Persepolis, encompassed a space wider than 5 kilometers in diameter—in other words, just the right size so that one could walk from the edge of town to the center and back in one hour. Today, the old core of a pedestrian city like Venice still has a diameter of 5 kilometers.
The growth of cities was marked, like tree rings, by advances in the ways we had to get from one place to another. The Berlin of 1800, Marchetti points out, was a walkable size. But as horse trams came along, then electric trams, then subways, and, finally, the car, the city kept growing, by roughly an amount proportional to the speed increase of the new commuting technology—but always such that the center of the city was, roughly, thirty minutes away for most people.
Jump back to last Traffic post.